Resilience research library

Resilience Library

Resilience is a word found in nearly a dozen academic disciplines, yet there is no consistent definition or approach shared among them. This means basic concepts from resilience engineering may conflict with those from other related fields like emergency management and civil engineering. We develop this resilience library with literature from physical and social sciences related to resilience engineering to promote collaboration and advance additional information, tools, and resources. Under each discipline, you will find a curated list of references you can use to expand your understanding of resilience beyond resilience engineering. We are constantly building on the resilience library, so please contact us if you have recommended references to include.

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Resilience Literature

Click on the bars below to review literature by subject area.

Community Resilience

Berkes, F., Ross, H., 2013. Community resilience: Toward an integrated approach. Society and Natural Resources 26, 5–20. doi:10.1080/08941920.2012.736605

Chaskin, R.J., 2008. Resilience, Community, and Resilient Communities: Conditioning Contexts and Collective Action. Child Care in Practice 14, 65–74. doi:10.1080/13575270701733724

Cloutier, S., Jambeck, J., Scott, N., 2014. The Sustainable Neighborhoods for Happiness Index (SNHI): A metric for assessing a community’s sustainability and potential influence on happiness. Ecological Indicators 40, 147–152. doi:10.1016/j.ecolind.2014.01.012

Cox, L.A.T., 2012. Community Resilience and Decision Theory Challenges for Catastrophic Events. Risk Analysis 32, 1919–1934. doi:10.1111/j.1539-6924.2012.01881.x

Cutter, S., Barnes, L., Berry, M., Burton, C., Evans, E., Tate, E., Webb, J., 2008. A place-based model for understanding community resilience to natural disasters. Global Environmental Change 18, 598–606. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2008.07.013

Gunderson, L., 2010. Ecological and Human Community Resilience in Response to Natural Disasters. Ecology and Society 15.

Munzberg, T., Wiens, M., Schultmann, F., 2016. A spatial-temporal vulnerability assessment to support the building of community resilience against power outage impacts. Technological Forecasting and Social Change. doi:10.1016/j.techfore.2016.11.027

Norris, F.H., Stevens, S.P., 2007. Community Resilience and the Principles of Mass Trauma Intervention. Psychiatry 70, 320–328.

Norris, F.H., Stevens, S.P., Pfefferbaum, B., Wyche, K.F., Pfefferbaum, R.L., 2008. Community resilience as a metaphor, theory, set of capacities, and strategy for disaster readiness. American Journal of Community Psychology 41, 127–150. doi:10.1007/s10464-007-9156-6

Renschler C., Fraizer A., Arendt L., Cimellaro G-P., Reinhorn A., Bruneau M., B., 2010. A Framework for Defining and Measuring Resilience at the Community Scale: The PEOPLES Resilience Framework. NIST US Dept of Commerce.

Sharifi, A., 2016. A critical review of selected tools for assessing community resilience. Ecological Indicators 69, 629–647. doi:10.1016/j.ecolind.2016.05.023

Wilson, G. a., 2013. Community resilience, social memory and the post-2010 Christchurch (New Zealand) earthquakes. Area 45, 207–215. doi:10.1111/area.12012

Zautra, A., Hall, J., Murray, K., 2008. Community Development and Community Resilience: An Integrative Approach. Community Development 39, 130–147. doi:10.1080/15575330809489673


Folke, C., Carpenter, S., Walker, B., Scheffer, M., Elmqvist, T., Gunderson, L., Holling, C., 2004. Regime shifts, resilience, in ecosystem management. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 35, 557–581. doi:10.2307/annurev.ecolsys.35.021103.30000021

Folke, C., Carpenter, S.R., Walker, B., Scheffer, M., Chapin, T., Rockström, J., 2010. Resilience Thinking : Integrating Resilience , Adaptability and Transformability. Ecology and Society 15.

Gunderson, L.H., 2000. Ecological resilience: In theory and application. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 31, 425–439.

Holling, C., 1978. Adaptive Environmental Assessment and Management. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Holling, C.S., 1973. Resilience and stability of ecological systems. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 4, 1–23. doi:10.1146/

Peterson, G., Allen, C.R., Holling, C.S., 1998. Ecological resilience, biodiversity, and scale. Ecosystems 1, 6–18. doi:10.1007/s100219900002


Alderson, D.L., Brown, G.G., Carlyle, M.W., Anthony Cox, L., 2013. Sometimes There Is No Most-Vital’’ Arc: Assessing and Improving the Operational Resilience of Systems. Military Operations Research 18, 21–37. doi:10.5711/1082598318121

Alderson, D.L., Brown, G.G., Carlyle, W.M., 2015. Operational models of infrastructure resilience. Risk Analysis 35, 562–586. doi:10.1111/risa.12333

Alderson, D.L., Doyle, J.C., 2010. Contrasting Views of Complexity and Their Implications For Network-Centric Infrastructures. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics - Part A: Systems and Humans 40, 839–852. doi:10.1109/TSMCA.2010.2048027

Holling, C., 1996. Engineering Resilience Versus Ecological Resilience, in: Engineering Within Ecological Constraints. pp. 31–44.

Hollnagel, E., 2014. Resilience engineering and the built environment. Building Research & Information 42, 221–228. doi:10.1080/09613218.2014.862607

Hollnagel, E., Hounsgaard, J., Colligan, L., 2014. FRAM – the Functional Resonance Analysis Method - A handbook for the practical use of the method.

Hollnagel, E., Paries, J., Woods, D., Wreathall, J., 2011. Resilience Engineering in Practice: A Guidebook. Ashgate Publishing Company, Burlington.

Hollnagel, E., Woods, D., Leveson, N., 2006. Resilience Engineering: Concepts and Precepts. Ashgate Publishing Limited, Aldershot, UK.

Linkov, I., Eisenberg, D.A., Bates, M.E., Chang, D., Convertino, M., Allen, J.H., Flynn, S.E., Seager, T.P., 2013a. Measurable Resilience for Actionable Policy. Environmental Science & Technology 47, 10108–10. doi:10.1021/es403443n

Linkov, I., Eisenberg, D.A., Plourde, K., Seager, T.P., Allen, J., Kott, A., 2013b. Resilience metrics for cyber systems. Environment Systems and Decisions 33, 471–476. doi:10.1007/s10669-013-9485-y

Madni, A.M., Jackson, S., 2009. Towards a conceptual framework for resilience engineering. IEEE Systems Journal 3, 181–191. doi:10.1109/JSYST.2009.2017397

Park, J., Seager, T., Rao, P., Convertino, M., Linkov, I., 2013. Integrating risk and resilience approaches to catastrophe management in engineering systems. Risk Analysis 33, 356–67. doi:10.1111/j.1539-6924.2012.01885.x

Report, F., Dekker, S., Hollnagel, E., Woods, D., Cook, R., Dekker, S., Hollnagel, E., Woods, D., Cook, R., 2008. Resilience Engineering : New directions for measuring and maintaining safety in complex systems Resilience Engineering : New directions for measuring and maintaining safety in complex systems Final Report.

Righi, A.W., Saurin, T.A., Wachs, P., 2015. A systematic literature review of resilience engineering: Research areas and a research agenda proposal. Reliability Engineering & System Safety 141, 142–152. doi:10.1016/j.ress.2015.03.007

Seager, T., Spierre Clark, S., Eisenberg, D., Thomas, J., Hinrich, M., Kofron, R., Norgaard Jensen, C., McBurnett, L., Snell, M., Alderson, D., 2017. Redesigning resilient infrastructure research, in: Linkov, I., Palma Olivera, J. (Eds.), Resilience and Risk: Methods and Application in Environment, Cyber and Social Domains. Springer.

Woods, D., 2015. Four concepts for resilience and the implications for the future of resilience engineering. Reliability Engineering and System Safety 141, 5–9. doi:10.1016/j.ress.2015.03.018


Bergström, J., Dahlström, N., van Winsen, R., Lützhöft, M., Nyce, J., Dekker, S., 2009. Rule-and role-retreat: An empirical study of procedures and resilience. Journal of Maritime Research 6, 41–58.

Brown, K., Westaway, E., 2011. Agency, capacity, and resilience to environmental change: Lessons from human development, well-being, and disasters. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 36, 321–342. doi:10.1146/annurev-environ-052610-092905

Cardona, O., 2003. The Need for Rethinking the Concepts of Vulnerability and Risk from a Holistic Perspective : A Necessary Review and Criticism for Effective Risk Management, in: Bankoff, G., Frerks, G., Hilhorst, D. (Eds.), Mapping Vulnerability: Disasters, Development and People. Earthscan, London, pp. 37–51. doi:10.4324/9781849771924

Chang, S.E., Mcdaniels, T., Fox, J., Dhariwal, R., Longstaff, H., 2014. Toward disaster-resilient cities: Characterizing resilience of infrastructure systems with expert judgments. Risk Analysis 34, 416–434. doi:10.1111/risa.12133

Cox, L.A.T., 2012. Community Resilience and Decision Theory Challenges for Catastrophic Events. Risk Analysis 32, 1919–1934. doi:10.1111/j.1539-6924.2012.01881.x

Cutter, S., Ahearn, J., Amadei, B., Crawford, P., Galloway, G., Goodchild, M., Kunreuther, H., Li-Vollmer, M., Schoch-Spana, M., Scrimshaw, S., Stanley, E., Whitney, G., Zoback, M., 2012. Disaster Resilience : A National Imperative. The National Academies Press.

Cutter, S., Burton, C., Emrich, C., 2010. Disaster resilience indicators for benchmarking baseline conditions. Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management 7. doi:10.2202/1547-7355.1732

Masten, A., Obradovic, J., 2008. Disaster preparation and recovery: Lessons from research on resilience in human development. Ecology and Society 13.


Bonanno, G., 2004. Loss, trauma, and human resilience: Have we underestimated the human capacity to thrive after extremely aversive events? The American Psychologist 59, 20–8. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.59.1.20

Bonanno, G.A., Romero, S.A., Klein, S.I., 2015. The Temporal Elements of Psychological Resilience : An Integrative Framework for the Study of Individuals , Families , and Communities 139–169. doi:10.1080/1047840X.2015.992677

Hauser, S.T., 1999. Understanding resilient outcomes: Adolescent lives across time and generations. Journal of Research on Adolescence (Lawrence Erlbaum) 9, 1–24. doi:10.1207/s15327795jra0901_1

Luthar, S., Cicchetti, D., Becker, B., 2000. The construct of resilience: A critical evaluation and guidelines for future work. Child development 71, 543–562.

Masten, A., 2014a. Global perspectives on resilience in children and youth. Child Development 85, 6–20. doi:10.1111/cdev.12205

Masten, A., 2014b. Ordinary Magic: Resilience in Development. The Guilford Press, New York.

Masten, A., Wright, M., 2010. Resilience over the lifespan, in: Reich, J., Zautra, A., Hall, J. (Eds.), Hanbook of Adult Resilience. Guilford Press, New York, pp. 213–237.

Masten, A.S., 2010. Lessons From Research on Resilience in Human Development. Canadian Education Association 49, 1–16. doi:Artn 9

Richardson, G.E., 2002. The Metatheory of Resilience and Resiliency. Journal of Clinical Psychology 58, 307–321. doi:10.1002/jclp.10020

Ungar, ., Ghazinour, M., Richter, J., 2013. Annual Research Review: What is resilience within the social ecology of human development? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines 54, 348–66. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12025

Ungar, M., 2013. Resilience, trauma, context, and culture. Trauma, Violence & Abuse 14, 255–66. doi:10.1177/1524838013487805

Ungar, M., 2012. The Social Ecology of Resilience. Springer US. doi:10.1007/978-1-4614-0586-3

Ungar, M., 2010. Cultural Dimensions of Resilience Among Adults, in: Handbook of Adult Resilience. The Guilford Press, pp. 404–423.

Socio-ecological Systems

Anderies, J., Folke, C., 2013. Aligning key concepts for global change policy: Robustness, resilience, and sustainability. Ecology and Society 18.

Anderies, J.M., 2014. Embedding built environments in social–ecological systems: resilience-based design principles. Building Research & Information 42, 130–142. doi:10.1080/09613218.2013.857455

Anderies, J.M., Janssen, M.A., Ostrom, E., 2004. A Framework to Analyze the Robustness of Social-ecological Systems from an Institutional Perspective. Ecology & Society 9, 18. doi:18

Carpenter, S., Walker, B., Anderies, J.M., Abel, N., 2001. From Metaphor to Measurement: Resilience of What to What? Ecosystems 4, 765–781. doi:10.1007/s10021-001-0045-9

Cote, M., Nightingale, A.J., 2012. Resilience thinking meets social theory Situating social change in socio-ecological systems (SES) research. Progress in Human Geography 36, 475–489. doi:10.1177/0309132511425708

Folke, C., Carpenter, S.R., Walker, B., Scheffer, M., Chapin, T., Rockström, J., 2010. Resilience Thinking : Integrating Resilience , Adaptability and Transformability. Ecology and Society 15.

Olsson, P., Folke, C., Berkes, F., 2004. Adaptive comanagement for building resilience in social ecological systems. Environmental Management 34, 75–90. doi:10.1007/s00267-003-0101-7

Smith, A., Stirling, A., 2008. Social-ecological resilience and socio-technical transitions: critical issues for sustainability governance, STEPS Working Paper 8, Brighton: STEPS Centre.

Walker, B., Anderies, J., Kinzig, P., Ryan, P., 2006. Exploring Resilience in Social-Ecological Systems Through Comparative Studies and Theory Development: Introduction to the Special Issue. Ecology and Society 11, 12. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2885.2004.tb00315.x

Walker, B., Holling, C., Carpenter, S., Kinzig, A., 2004. Resilience, adaptability and transformability in social-ecological systems. Ecology and society 9.